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Executive SummaryIntroductionExplore the Health of Women, Children and InfantsFindingsThe Health of Women and Children between StatesThe Health of Women and Children within StatesHealthy Communities for ChildrenClinical Preventive Services for ChildrenRacial Disparities in Measures of MortalityVariations in SmokingMeasures of Women's HealthBehaviors | Measures of Women’s HealthCommunity & Environment | Measures of Women’s HealthPolicy | Measures of Women’s HealthClinical Care | Measures of Women’s HealthOutcomes | Measures of Women’s HealthMeasures of Infants' HealthBehaviors | Measures of Infants’ HealthCommunity & Environment | Measures of Infants’ HealthPolicy | Measures of Infants’ HealthClinical Care | Measures of Infants’ HealthOutcomes | Measures of Infants’ HealthMeasures of Children's HealthBehaviors | Measures of Children’s HealthCommunity & Environment | Measures of Children’s HealthPolicy | Measures of Children’s HealthClinical Care | Measures of Children’s HealthOutcomes | Measures of Children’s HealthState SummariesAlabamaAlaskaArizonaArkansasCaliforniaColoradoConnecticutDelawareFloridaGeorgiaHawaiiIdahoIllinoisIndianaIowaKansasKentuckyLouisianaMaineMarylandMassachusettsMichiganMinnesotaMississippiMissouriMontanaNebraskaNevadaNew HampshireNew JerseyNew MexicoNew YorkNorth CarolinaNorth DakotaOhioOklahomaOregonPennsylvaniaRhode IslandSouth CarolinaSouth DakotaTennesseeTexasUtahVermontVirginiaWashingtonWest VirginiaWisconsinWyomingDistrict of ColumbiaUnited StatesAppendixData Sources and Measures of Women’s HealthData Sources and Measures of Infants’ HealthData Sources and Measures of Children’s HealthMethodologyModel DevelopmentAmerica’s Health Rankings® Health of Women and Children Steering GroupThe Team

Behaviors

Alcohol During Pregnancy

Percentage of pregnant women aged 18 to 44 who self-report having at least one alcoholic beverage in the past 30 days
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2011-2014

Breastfed

Percentage of infants exclusively breastfed for six months
CDC, Breastfeeding Report Card, 2014

Sleep Position

Percentage of women with a recent live birth who report their infants are usually placed on their backs to sleep
CDC, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, 2012; California Department of Public Health, Maternal and Infant Health Assessment, 2012

Smoking During Pregnancy

Percentage of pregnant women aged 18 to 44 who are self-reported smokers (smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and currently smoke)
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2011-2014

Community & Environment

Household Smoke

Percentage of children aged 0 to 17 who live in households in which someone in the household uses cigarettes, cigars, or pipe tobacco
Data Resource Center for Child & Adolescent Health (DRC), National Survey of Children’s Health, 2011-2012

Infant Child Care Cost

Average cost for center-based infant care as a percentage of married-couple’s median income
Child Care Aware, Parents and the High Cost of Child Care 2015 Report, 2014

Policy

Baby-Friendly Facility

Percentage of live births occurring at facilities that adhere to 10 Steps to Successful Breastfeeding and are designated baby-friendly by Baby-Friendly USA
CDC, Breastfeeding Report Card, 2014

Home Health Visit

Percentage of children, or their parent, receiving a home health visit between pregnancy and time child was 3 years old
DRC, National Survey of Children’s Health, 2011-2012

mPINC

Maternity Practices in Infant and Nutrition Care survey score based on seven birth facility policies and practices with higher scores denoting better maternity care practices and policies
CDC, Breastfeeding Report Card, 2014

Clinical Care

Low-Risk Cesarean Delivery

Percentage of singleton, term (37 or more weeks gestation), vertex (non-breech) cesarean deliveries to women having their first birth per 100 women delivering singleton, term, vertex, first births
CDC, National Vital Statistics System, 2014

Prenatal Care Before 3rd Trimester

Percentage of live births in which the mother received prenatal care before the 3rd trimester
CDC, National Vital Statistics System, 2014

Well-Baby Check

Percentage of babies aged 0 to 2 years who had a well-baby checkup in the past 12 months
DRC, National Survey of Children’s Health, 2011-2012

Outcomes

Infant Mortality

Number of infant deaths (before age 1) per 1,000 live births
CDC, National Vital Statistics System, 2012-2013

Low Birthweight

Percentage of infants weighing less than 2,500 grams (5 pounds, 8 ounces) at birth
CDC, National Vital Statistics System, 2014

Neonatal Mortality

Number of deaths during first 28 days of life (0 to 27 days) per 1,000 live births
CDC, National Vital Statistics System, 2014

Preterm Birth

Percentage of live births before 37 weeks gestation
CDC, National Vital Statistics System, 2014

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