America's Health Rankings, United Health Foundation Logo
Close
Executive SummaryIntroductionExplore the Health of Women, Children and InfantsFindingsThe Health of Women and Children between StatesThe Health of Women and Children within StatesHealthy Communities for ChildrenClinical Preventive Services for ChildrenRacial Disparities in Measures of MortalityVariations in SmokingMeasures of Women's HealthBehaviors | Measures of Women’s HealthCommunity & Environment | Measures of Women’s HealthPolicy | Measures of Women’s HealthClinical Care | Measures of Women’s HealthOutcomes | Measures of Women’s HealthMeasures of Infants' HealthBehaviors | Measures of Infants’ HealthCommunity & Environment | Measures of Infants’ HealthPolicy | Measures of Infants’ HealthClinical Care | Measures of Infants’ HealthOutcomes | Measures of Infants’ HealthMeasures of Children's HealthBehaviors | Measures of Children’s HealthCommunity & Environment | Measures of Children’s HealthPolicy | Measures of Children’s HealthClinical Care | Measures of Children’s HealthOutcomes | Measures of Children’s HealthState SummariesAlabamaAlaskaArizonaArkansasCaliforniaColoradoConnecticutDelawareFloridaGeorgiaHawaiiIdahoIllinoisIndianaIowaKansasKentuckyLouisianaMaineMarylandMassachusettsMichiganMinnesotaMississippiMissouriMontanaNebraskaNevadaNew HampshireNew JerseyNew MexicoNew YorkNorth CarolinaNorth DakotaOhioOklahomaOregonPennsylvaniaRhode IslandSouth CarolinaSouth DakotaTennesseeTexasUtahVermontVirginiaWashingtonWest VirginiaWisconsinWyomingDistrict of ColumbiaUnited StatesAppendixData Sources and Measures of Women’s HealthData Sources and Measures of Infants’ HealthData Sources and Measures of Children’s HealthMethodologyModel DevelopmentAmerica’s Health Rankings® Health of Women and Children Steering GroupThe Team
In the United States, smoking is the leading cause of preventable death. This report includes four smoking measures; smoking among women aged 18 to 44, smoking during pregnancy among women aged 18 to 44, tobacco use among children aged 12 to 17, and children aged 0 to 17 living in households with a smoker. Naturally, these measures are highly correlated with each other—the Pearson correlation coefficient [i] between pairs of the four measures ranges from 0.61 to 0.89. The strongest correlation is between smoking among women and tobacco use among youth (Figure 17).
While most states perform similarly across the four individual smoking measures, in some states there are unexpected differences between the measures. For example, Figure 18 depicts the prevalence of smoking among women and the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy. In some states, such as Oregon, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and Wisconsin the prevalence of smoking among pregnant women is higher than expected, given the prevalence of smoking among women. In other states, such as Connecticut, Delaware, Kentucky, and New Mexico smoking prevalence among pregnant women is lower than expected, given the prevalence of smoking among women.
For all four measures of smoking, there are large differences across states. West Virginia has the highest prevalence of smoking for all four measures. Table 5 shows that the variation in smoking prevalence among women aged 18 to 44 is 4 times higher in West Virginia than in California, smoking among pregnant women aged 18 to 44 is 17 times higher in West Virginia than in Connecticut, the percentage of children living in households with a smoker (household smoke) is 3.3 times higher in West Virginia than in Utah, and tobacco use among youth is 2.5 times higher in West Virginia than in California.
i. Pearson correlation coefficient is a measure of linear correlation between two variables that ranges from +1.0 when perfectly directly correlated to -1.0 for perfectly inversely correlated.

Figure 17 - Comparison of Smoking Prevalence in Women and Tobacco Use in Youth



Figure 18 - Comparison of Smoking Prevalence in All Women and Pregnant Women











Please tell us a little more about you

We appreciate you taking the time to help America’s Health Rankings better understand our audiences. Your feedback will allow us to optimize our website and provide you with additional resources in the future. Thank you.

Please select one option which best describes your profession or field of expertise

Journalist or media professional
Health Policy Professional
Public health professional (state, local, or community level)
Health care provider or administrator
Member of an advocacy group or trade organization
Academic, student, or researcher
Government administrator, legislator, or staffer
Concerned citizen
Other
Don't show me this again
Please take a quick survey.