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Behaviors

Fruits

Mean number of fruits consumed per day by adults
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2017

Insufficient Sleep*

Percentage of adults who reported sleeping less than seven hours in a 24-hour period on average
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2016

Seat Belt Use

Percentage of adults who reported always using a seat belt when driving or riding in a car
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2017

Vegetables

Mean number of vegetables consumed per day by adults
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2017

Community & Environment

Adverse Childhood Experiences

Percentage of children aged 0 to 17 who experienced two or more of the following: socioeconomic hardship; parental divorce or separation; lived with someone who had an alcohol or drug problem; victim or witness of neighborhood violence; lived with someone who was mentally ill, suicidal or severely depressed; domestic violence witness; parent served time in jail; treated or judged unfairly due to race/ethnicity; death of parent
Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative, National Survey of Children’s Health, Data Resource Center for Child and Adolescent Health, 2016

Concentrated Disadvantage

Percentage of households located in census tracts with a high level of concentrated disadvantage, calculated using five census variables (percentage below poverty line, receiving public assistance, female-headed households, unemployed, younger than age 18) (5-year average)
U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2012-2016

Disconnected Youth

Percentage of teens and young adults aged 16 to 24 who are neither working nor in school
Measure of America, Promising Gains, Persistent Gaps Youth Disconnection in America 2018 Report, 2016

Income Inequality - Gini Index

Inequality on the Gini scale is measured between zero, where everyone earns the same income, and one, where all the country’s income is earned by a single person
U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2017

Median Household Income

Dollar amount that divides the household income distribution of the population into two equal groups
U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2017

Neighborhood Amenities

Percentage of children aged 0 to 17 with access to parks or playgrounds, recreation or community centers, libraries or bookmobiles and sidewalks or walking paths
Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative, National Survey of Children’s Health, Data Resource Center for Child and Adolescent Health, 2016

Severe Housing Problems

Percentage of occupied housing units that lack complete kitchen or plumbing facilities, are severely crowded and/or occupants are severely cost burdened (5-year average)
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Comprehensive Housing Affordability Strategy (CHAS), 2011-2015

Underemployment Rate

Total unemployed and employed part-time for economic reasons plus all marginally attached workers, as a percentage of the civilian workforce plus all marginally attached workers (U-6 definition)
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2017

Unemployment Rate

Total unemployed, as a percentage of the civilian workforce (U-3 definition)
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2017

Voter Registration

Percentage of U.S. citizens aged 18 and older registered to vote in biennial national elections
U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Voter Registration, 2016

Policy

Water Fluoridation*

Percentage of population served by community water systems that receive fluoridated water
CDC, Water Fluoridation Reporting System, 2014

Clinical Care

Cholesterol Check

Percentage of adults who reported having their blood cholesterol checked within the past five years
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2017

Colorectal Cancer Screening*

Percentage of adults aged 50 to 75 who reported receiving one or more of the recommended colorectal cancer screening tests within the recommended time interval (fecal occult blood test [FOBT] within the past year, colonoscopy within the past 10 years, or sigmoidoscopy within five years and a home FOBT within the past three years)
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2016

Dedicated Health Care Provider

Percentage of adults who reported having a personal doctor or health care provider
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2017

Dental Visit*

Percentage of adults who reported visiting the dentist or dental clinic within the past year for any reason
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2016

Outcomes

Heart Attack

Percentage of adults who reported being told by a health professional that they had a heart attack (myocardial infarction)
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2017

Heart Disease

Percentage of adults who reported being told by a health professional that they have angina or coronary heart disease
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2017

High Blood Pressure

Percentage of adults who reported being told by a health professional that they have high blood pressure
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2017

High Cholesterol

Percentage of adults who reported having their cholesterol checked and were told by a health professional that it was high
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2017

High Health Status

Percentage of adults who reported that their health is very good or excellent
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2017

Injury Deaths

Age-adjusted number of deaths due to injury per 100,000 population (3-year average)
CDC WONDER Online Database, Underlying Cause of Death, Multiple Cause of Death Files, 2014-2016

Six+ Teeth Extractions*

Percentage of adults aged 45 to 64 who reported having six or more permanent teeth removed due to tooth decay or gum disease
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2016

Stroke

Percentage of adults who reported being told by a health professional that they had a stroke
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2017

Suicide

Age-adjusted number of deaths due to intentional self-harm per 100,000 population
CDC WONDER Online Database, Underlying Cause of Death, Multiple Cause of Death Files, 2016
*The data appearing in this edition are the same that appeared in the 2017 edition.

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