IntroductionFindingsComparison With Other NationsCore MeasuresBehaviorsCommunity & EnvironmentPolicyClinical CareOutcomesSupplemental MeasuresState SummariesAlabamaAlaskaArizonaArkansasCaliforniaColoradoConnecticutDelawareFloridaGeorgiaHawaiiIdahoIllinoisIndianaIowaKansasKentuckyLouisianaMaineMarylandMassachusettsMichiganMinnesotaMississippiMissouriMontanaNebraskaNevadaNew HampshireNew JerseyNew MexicoNew YorkNorth CarolinaNorth DakotaOhioOklahomaOregonPennsylvaniaRhode IslandSouth CarolinaSouth DakotaTennesseeTexasUtahVermontVirginiaWashingtonWest VirginiaWisconsinWyomingDistrict of ColumbiaUS SummaryAppendixDescription of Core MeasuresDescription of Supplemental MeasuresMethodologyModel DevelopmentScientific Advisory CommitteeThe TeamAcknowledgementsConclusion
Smoking is the US’s leading cause of preventable death, contributing to 480,000 deaths annually. Secondhand smoke causes 41,000 deaths yearly, and 10.9 million suffer from a smoking-related illness. Approximately 14 million major medical conditions are attributed to smoking, which damages nearly every body organ and causes respiratory disease, heart disease, stroke, cancer, preterm birth, low birthweight, and premature death. Smoking shortens lifespan an average of 10 years. The US annual smoking cost: $170 billion in direct medical expenses and $156 billion in lost productivity. When smokers quit, heart attack risk drops sharply after just 1 year.
Data source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2014 For details: www.americashealthrankings.org/ALL/Smoking
Excessive alcohol use includes binge drinking and chronic drinking; it can lead to fetal damage, liver diseases, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and other major health problems. An annual average of 87,798 alcohol-attributable deaths, 2.5 million years of potential life lost, and an average of 12,460 motor vehicle traffic crashes were due to excessive drinking from 2006 to 2010. Excessive alcohol use cost states a median of $3.5 billion in 2010, or $2.05 per state per alcoholic beverage consumed. Costs were from workplace-productivity losses, increased health care and criminal justice expenses, motor vehicle crashes, and property damage.
Data source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2014 For details:www.americashealthrankings.org/ALL/Excessive
Drug overdose deaths—the nation’s leading cause of injury death—rose over the past 2 decades. An estimated 24.6 million Americans over age 12 in 2013 used an illicit drug in the last month including marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and misused prescription drugs. Total estimated cost of illicit drug use in the US economy is $193 billion. After marijuana, prescription drugs are the second-most abused substance. Painkillers prescribed and overdose deaths quadrupled from 1999 to 2013. Annual prescription opioid abuse costs reached upwards of $55 billion in 2007 due to work-productivity losses, health care costs, drug treatment, and criminal justice expenses.
Data source: National Vital Statistics System, 2011 to 2013 For details:www.americashealthrankings.org/ALL/Drugdeaths
“Since 1999, the amount of prescription painkillers prescribed and sold in the US has nearly quadrupled, yet there has not been an overall change in the amount of pain that Americans report.” - CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION
Almost one-third of US adults are obese. Obesity contributes to an estimated 200,000 deaths yearly and is a leading factor in such preventable conditions as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke, cancer, hypertension, liver disease, kidney disease, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, respiratory conditions, and osteoarthritis. An estimated $190.2 billion is spent on obesity-related health issues each year, representing 21% of annual medical spending. Obese adults spend on average 42% more on health care than healthy-weight adults. Obesity, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption contribute similarly to chronic conditions and overall poor health.
Data source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2014 For details: www.americashealthrankings.org/ALL/Obesity
Physical inactivity is responsible for 1 in 10 deaths yearly and increases risk of coronary heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, certain cancers, and premature death. Only 21% of adults meet the US Department of Health and Human Services recommendation of at least 150 minutes of physical activity weekly. Adults with higher education or those with higher incomes are more likely to be physically active than those with low education or low income. Non-Hispanic white adults report more aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activity than non-Hispanic black and Hispanic adults. Increasing—especially starting—physical activity can prevent and help manage chronic diseases.
Data source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2014 For details: www.americashealthrankings.org/ALL/Sedentary
High School Graduation
Studies show if the health of less-educated Americans equaled that of college-educated Americans, health improvements would result in more than $1 trillion in savings annually. College graduates’ life expectancy is 5 years longer than those who did not complete high school. For those without a high school education, life expectancy has decreased since the 1990s. Individuals with more education are less likely to smoke, drink heavily, or be overweight or obese; they are more likely to have a higher earning potential and better employment opportunities, which allow for access to healthier food, health insurance, medical care, and safe neighborhoods.
Data source: National Center for Education Statistics, 2012 to 2013 (ACGR) For Details: www.americashealthrankings.org/ALL/Graduation
“Many, if not most of the obstacles to school completion (teen pregnancy, school violence, hunger, homelessness, unmet physical and mental health needs) are the same obstacles to vibrant health and well-being.” - American Public Health Association - The Center for School, Health and Education