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i Gerteis J, Izrael D, Deitz D, LeRoy L, Ricciardi R, Miller T, et al. Multiple Chronic Conditions Chartbook. AHRQ Publications No, Q14-0038.Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. April 2014. http://www.ahrq.gov/sites/default/files/wysiwyg/professionals/prevention-chronic-care/decision/mcc/mccchartbook.pdf. Accessed March 7, 2016.
ii Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Chronic Conditions among Medicare Beneficiaries, Chartbook, 2012 Edition. Baltimore, MD. 2012. https://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and Reports/Chronic-Conditions/Downloads/2012Chartbook.pdf. Accessed March 7, 2016. i
iii Sacks JJ, Gonzales KR, Bouchery EE, Tomedi LE,Brewer RD. 2010 National and State Costs of Excessive Alcohol Consumption. Am J Prev Med. 2015;49(5):e73-79.
iv Cawley J, Meyerhoefer C. The medical care cost of obesity: An instrumental variables approach. J Health Econ. 2012;31(1):219-230.
v Carlson SA, Fulton JE, Pratt M, Yang Z, Adams EK. Inadequate physical activity and health care expenditures in the United States. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2015;57(4):315-323.
vi Xu X, Bishop EE, Kennedy SM, Simpson SA, Pechacek TF. Annual healthcare spending attributable to cigarette smoking: an update. Am J Prev Med. 2015;48(3):326-333.
vii US Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014.
viii Li C, Ford ES, Mokdad AH, Balluz LS, Brown DW, Giles WH. Clustering of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life among US Adults. Value Health. 2008;11(4):689-699.
ix Liu Y, Croft JB, Wheaton AG, Perry GS, Chapman DP, Strine TW et al. Association between perceived insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress, obesity and chronic diseases among US adults, 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system. BMC Public Health. 2013,13:84. http://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-13-84. Accessed February 17, 2016.
x Lantz PM, House JS, Lepkowski JM, Williams DR, Mero RP, Chen J. Socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and mortality: Results from a nationally representative prospective study of US adults. JAMA. 1998;279(21):1703-1708.
xi Health Care Costs: A Primer. Key information on health care costs and their impact. The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. May 2012. https://kaiserfamilyfoundation.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/7670-03.pdf. Accessed March 11, 2016.
xii Wang, N. A Bridge to Health – And Away from ER Overuse. Kaiser Health News. http://khn.org/news/a-bridge-to-health-and-awayfrom-er-overuse/. Accessed March 7, 2016.
xiii Foden-Vencil K. How Oregon Is Getting ‘Frequent Flyers’ Out of Hospital ERs. Kaiser Health News. http://khn.org/news/emergency-room-frequent-flyers/. Accessed March 11, 2016.
xiv Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. http://www.cdc.gov/brfss/. Updated February 1, 2016. Accessed February 26, 2016.
xv Pierannunzi C, Sean Hu S, Balluz L. A systematic review of publications assessing reliability and validity of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), 2004-2011. BMC Medical Research Methodology. 2013;13:49. http://bmcmedresmethodol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2288-13-49. Accessed March 24, 2016.
xvi Thompson ML, Myers JE, Kriebel D. Prevalence odds ratio or prevalence ratio in the analysis of cross sectional data: what is to be done? Occup Environ Med. 1998;55(4):272-277.
xvii Rostron BL, Chang CM, Pechacek TF. Estimation of cigarette smoking–attributable morbidity in the United States. JAMA Intern Med. October 13, 2014; doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.5219.
xviii US Department of Health and Human Services. How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: What It Means to You. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2010. Accessed March 24, 2016.
xix Jha P, Ramasundarahettige C, Landsman V, Rostron B, Thun M, Anderson RN, et al. 21st-century hazards of smoking and benefits of cessation in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(4):341-50. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23343063. Accessed August 11, 2014.
xx Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke. Updated March 5, 2014, Accessed March 24, 2016.
xxi Stahre M, Roeber J, Kanny D, Brewer RD, Zhang X. Contribution of excessive alcohol consumption to deaths and years of potential life lost in the United States. Prev Chronic Dis. 2014;11:130293.
xxii Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Alcohol and public health: alcohol-related disease impact (ARDI) application, 2013. http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/onlinetools.htm. Updated November 12, 2015. Accessed July 8, 2015.
xxiii Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Fact sheets—moderate drinking: alcohol and public health. http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/fact-sheets/moderate-drinking.htm. Updated March 3, 2015. Accessed July 8, 2015.
xxv Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Alcohol and public health. http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/faqs.htm#excessivealcohol. Updated November 16, 2015. Accessed March 16, 2016.
xxvi Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Overweight and obesity. http://www.cdc.gov/obesity. Updated August 6, 2013. Accessed August, 21, 2013.
xxvii Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of Childhood and Adult Obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. JAMA. 2014;311(8):806-814.
xxviii Danaei G. The preventable causes of death in the United States: comparative risk assessment of dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors. PLoS Medicine. 2009;6(4).
xxix Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Childhood obesity facts. http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/obesity/facts.htm. Updated April 24, 2015. Accessed July 16, 2015.
xxx Sturm R. Does obesity contribute as much to morbidity as poverty or smoking? Public Health. 2001;115(3):229.
xxxi Finkelstein EA. Economic causes and consequences of obesity. Annu Rev Public Health. 2005;26(1):239.
xxxii Papas MA. The built environment and obesity. Epidemiol Rev. 2007;29(1):129.
xxxiii Hu FB. Sedentary lifestyle and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Lipids. 2003;38(2):103.
xxxiv King AC. Environmental and policy approaches to cardiovascular disease prevention through physical activity: issues and opportunities. Health Education Behavior. 1995;22(4):499.
xxxv Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Facts about physical activity. http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/data/facts.htm. Updated May 23, 2014. Accessed July 24, 2015.
xxxvi Weiler R, Stamatakis E, Blair S. Should health policy focus on physical activity rather than obesity? Yes. BMJ. 2010;340(7757):1170-1171.
xxxvii King AC. Personal and environmental factors associated with physical inactivity among different racial–ethnic groups of US middle-aged and older-aged women. Health Psychology. 2000;19(4):354.
xxxviii Marshall S, Jones D, Ainsworth B, Reis J, Levy S, Macera C. Race/ethnicity, social class, and leisure time physical inactivity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(1):44-51.
xxxix Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Insufficient sleep is a public health epidemic. http://www.cdc.gov/features/dssleep/. Updated January 13, 2014. Accessed July 22, 2015.
xl The National Center on Sleep Disorders Research (NCSDR). National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/about/org/ncsdr/. Accessed July 23, 2015.
xli Institute of Medicine. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2006.
xlii Fine L, Philogene G, Gramling R, Coups EJ, Sinha S. Prevalence of Multiple Chronic Disease Risk Factors. Am J Prev Med. 2004;27(2S):18-24.
xliii Carlsson AC, Wandell PE, Gigante B, Leander K, Hellenius M-L, de Faire U. Seven modifiable lifestyle factors predict reduced risk for ischemic cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality regardless of body mass index: A cohort study. Int J Cardiol. 2013;168:946-952.
xliv Spring B, Moller AC, Coons MJ. Multiple health behaviors: overview and implications. J Public Health. 2012;34(1):i3-i10.
xlv Yusuf HR, Giles WH, Croft JB, Anda RF, Casper ML. Impact of Multiple Risk Factor Profiles on Determining Cardiovascular Disease Risk. Prev Med. 1998;27:1-9.
xlvi Strine TW, Okoro CA, Chapman DP, Balluz LS, Ford ES, Ajani UA, et al. Health-Related Quality of Life and Health Risk Behaviors Among Smokers. Am J Prev Med. 2005;28(2):182-7.
xlvii Annor F, Bayakly R, Vajani M. Self-perceived health: Relationship with chronic disease and health risk behaviors among adult Georgians. Paper Presented at: 141st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2013; November 4, 2013; Boston, MA.
xlviii Selivanova A, Cramm JM. The relationship between healthy behaviors and health outcomes among older adults in Russia. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:1183.
xlix Jiang Y, Hesser JE. Associations between health-related quality of life and demographics and health risks.Results from Rhode Island’s 2002 behavioral risk factor survey. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 2006;4:14.Accessed March 7, 2016.

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