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HPV Vaccination
HPV Vaccination in United States
United States

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HPV Vaccination in depth:

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General Population

HPV Vaccination by State

Percentage of adolescents ages 13-17 who received all recommended doses of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine

HPV Vaccination Trends

Percentage of adolescents ages 13-17 who received all recommended doses of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine

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HPV Vaccination

About HPV Vaccination

US Value: 61.7%

Top State(s): Rhode Island: 83.2%

Bottom State(s): Mississippi: 32.7%

Definition: Percentage of adolescents ages 13-17 who received all recommended doses of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine

Data Source and Years: CDC, National Immunization Survey-Teen, 2021

Suggested Citation: America's Health Rankings analysis of CDC, National Immunization Survey-Teen, United Health Foundation,, accessed 2023.

Every year, an estimated 19,000 cases of Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancer among females and 13,100 cases of HPV-associated cancer among males could be prevented through vaccination. 

Human papillomavirus is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States, affecting about 85% of people in their lifetime. About 13 million people, including adolescents, become newly infected each year. HPV infections can cause different types of cancer as well as genital warts. In fact, most cases of genital warts, cervical cancer and cancers of the anus, throat, vagina and vulva are associated with HPV infection.

HPV-associated diseases cost the U.S. an estimated $8 billion (2010 dollars) in annual direct medical costs for preventing and treating all HPV types.

Adolescents remain the main focus of HPV immunization in the U.S. HPV vaccination is most effective when given before any exposure to HPV as the efficacy is reduced in older adults due to previous HPV infections. 

Populations of teens with higher HPV immunization coverage in 2020 include:

  • Females compared with males. Initial HPV vaccine trials were limited to female participants, resulting in a three-year delay between when males were first offered the vaccine versus females. 
  • Non-Hispanic Black, multiracial and Hispanic teens compared with non-Hispanic white teens.
  • Teens with health insurance compared with uninsured teens.

The best time to vaccinate teens is before they are exposed to HPV. However, those who have already been infected with one or more strains of HPV can still get protection against other strains through vaccination. 

According to recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, all males and females ages 11 or 12 should receive two doses of the HPV vaccine 6-12 months apart to complete the full series. Three doses remain recommended for those who start the vaccination series at or after age 15. 

Achieving and maintaining high vaccination coverage is critical to sustaining progress in reducing the impact of vaccine-preventable diseases. CDC immunization programs, such as the Vaccines for Children Program, support the purchase of vaccines as well as immunization operations at the local, state and national levels. The 2010 Affordable Care Act requires health insurance plans to cover preventive services, including immunizations, without charging deductibles, copayments or coinsurance. This legislation allows the Vaccines for Children Program to provide eligible children with access to vaccines at no cost through certain doctors.

Healthy People 2030 has a goal to increase the proportion of adolescents who receive recommended doses of HPV vaccine to 80%.

Chesson, Harrell W., Donatus U. Ekwueme, Mona Saraiya, Meg Watson, Douglas R. Lowy, and Lauri E. Markowitz. “Estimates of the Annual Direct Medical Costs of the Prevention and Treatment of Disease Associated with Human Papillomavirus in the United States.” Vaccine 30, no. 42 (September 2012): 6016–19.

Markowitz, Lauri E., Julianne Gee, Harrell Chesson, and Shannon Stokley. “Ten Years of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in the United States.” Academic Pediatrics 18, no. 2 (March 2018): S3–10.

Meites, Elissa, Peter G. Szilagyi, Harrell W. Chesson, Elizabeth R. Unger, José R. Romero, and Lauri E. Markowitz. “Human Papillomavirus Vaccination for Adults: Updated Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices.” MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 68, no. 32 (August 16, 2019): 698–702.

Pingali, Cassandra, David Yankey, Laurie D. Elam-Evans, Lauri E. Markowitz, Charnetta L. Williams, Benjamin Fredua, Lucy A. McNamara, Shannon Stokley, and James A. Singleton. “National, Regional, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescents Aged 13–17 Years — United States, 2020.” MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 70, no. 35 (September 3, 2021): 1183–90.

Senkomago, Virginia, S. Jane Henley, Cheryll C. Thomas, Jacqueline M. Mix, Lauri E. Markowitz, and Mona Saraiya. “Human Papillomavirus–Attributable Cancers — United States, 2012–2016.” MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 68, no. 33 (August 23, 2019): 724–28.

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