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Cancer, 2016 Annual Report
Measure: Cancer Deaths, 2016 Annual Report

Why does this matter?

Cancer is the second-leading cause of death in the United States behind heart disease. The most common cancers in the nation — breast, prostate, lung and bronchus, and colorectal cancer — are also responsible for the most deaths. Lung cancer accounts for the largest number of cancer deaths among men (26%) and women (25%).

 

According to the American Cancer Society’s Cancer Facts & Figures 2019 report, there will be an estimated 1,762,450 new cases of cancer and 606,880 cancer deaths in 2019. The age-adjusted U.S. cancer death rate has been declining steadily from its peak in 1991, with more than 2.6 million fewer cancer deaths between 1991 and 2016. The decrease in cancer deaths can be attributed to reductions in smoking as well as improved detection and treatment of cancer.

 

In 2017, the national cost of cancer care was approximately $147.3 billion. Assuming incidence and survival trends remain constant, that number is expected to increase to nearly $157.8 billion by 2020, due to a growing number of aging Americans — as the population ages cancer prevalence increases. In addition, the estimated cost of lost productivity from cancer mortality is projected to be $147.6 billion in 2020.

Source:
  • CDC WONDER, Multiple Cause of Death Files, 2012-2014



“Getting screening tests regularly may find breast, cervical, and colorectal (colon) cancers early, when treatment is likely to work best.” - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention



Cardiovascular Deaths, 2016 Annual Report
Measure: Cardiovascular Deaths, 2016 Annual Report

Why does this matter?

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) refer to a number of conditions related to the heart and blood vessels, namely heart disease and stroke. An estimated 121.5 million U.S. adults, 48% of those ages 20 and older, have at least one type of CVD. Hypertension is the most common component of CVD, with only 9% of adults reporting the other major components – coronary heart disease, heart failure and stroke. Heart disease and stroke, are the nation’s leading and fifth-leading causes of death, respectively — accounting for 647,457 and 146,383 deaths in 2017. Symptoms of CVD often include fatigue and shortness of breath, these symptoms and their accompanying diagnosis can have dramatic effects on people's lives.

 

While CVD rates overall have been declining for decades, recent increases in conditions that can lead to CVD (i.e. obesity and diabetes) have resulted in rising CVD rates in high-risk populations. These increases in CVD rates will likely contribute to rising costs as well. The estimated direct medical costs and lost productivity attributable to CVD was $555 billion in 2016, and are projected to reach $1.1 trillion by 2035.

Source:
  • CDC WONDER, Multiple Cause of Death Files, 2012-2014



“The majority of cardiovascular disease is caused by risk factors that can be controlled, treated or modified, such as high blood pressure, cholesterol, overweight / obesity, tobacco use, lack of physical activity and diabetes.” - World Heart Federation



Diabetes, 2016 Annual Report
Measure: Diabetes, 2016 Annual Report

Why does this matter?

Diabetes was the nation’s seventh-leading cause of death in 2019, accounting for 87,647 deaths annually. Those with diabetes are twice as likely to have heart disease or a stroke than those without diabetes. There are three types of diabetes: Type 1, Type 2, and gestational (diabetes while pregnant). Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90%-95% of all cases. 

Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure, nontraumatic lower-limb amputations and blindness among adults. In 2018, 34.1 million adults were estimated to have diabetes, 26.8 million of which were diagnosed and 7.3 million were undiagnosed. 

Direct medical costs and lost productivity attributable to diagnosed diabetes was estimated to be $327 billion in 2017.

Source:
  • CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2015




Disparity in Health Status, 2016 Annual Report
Measure: Disparity in Health Status, 2016 Annual Report

Why does this matter?

This measure looks at differences in self-reported high health status between two educational attainment levels. Educational attainment is a strong predictor of future health outcomes. The connection between education and health is well documented, with lower educational attainment among adults being associated with poorer health. Higher educational attainment is associated with better jobs, higher earnings, increased health knowledge, better self-reported health and fewer chronic conditions. An additional four years of education reduces the probability of reporting fair or poor health status by 6 percentage points.

 

Research shows that those with a high self-reported health status (i.e. excellent or very good) have lower rates of mortality from all causes than those with a low self-reported health status (i.e. fair or poor). The association between health status and mortality makes this measure a good predictor of future mortality rates and future use of health care. A 2013 report found that if half of adults who did not graduate from high school had graduated, the United States would have saved over $7 billion in Medicaid costs alone.

Source:
  • CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2015




Frequent Mental Distress, 2016 Annual Report
Measure: Frequent Mental Distress, 2016 Annual Report

Why does this matter? 

Frequent mental distress is an indicator of health-related quality of life and the burden of mental illness in a population. Frequent mental distress is characterized by 14 or more days of self-reported poor mental health in the past month. The cutoff point of 14 or more days is used because a strong relationship has been demonstrated between the 14-day minimum period and clinically diagnosed mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety. This measure aims to capture the population experiencing persistent and likely severe mental health issues.

Frequent mental distress is associated with health conditions and risk factors for poor health, including diabetes, hypertension, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity and insufficient sleep.

Source:
  • CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2015




Frequent Physical Distress, 2016 Annual Report
Measure: Frequent Physical Distress, 2016 Annual Report

Why does this matter?

Frequent physical distress is an indicator of health-related quality of life and the burden of physical illness in a population. Frequent physical distress is characterized by 14 or more days of self-reported poor physical health in the past month. The cutoff point of 14 or more days of poor physical health has been validated as an indicator of substantial physical impairment. This measure aims to capture the population experiencing persistent and likely severe physical health problems.

Frequent physical distress is associated with chronic health conditions such as diabetes, hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and risk factors such as smoking, obesity and physical inactivity.

 

Source:
  • CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2015




Infant Mortality, 2016 Annual Report
Measure: Infant Mortality, 2016 Annual Report

Why does this matter?

Losing an infant is devastating for parents, families and communities and can result in extreme and persistent sadness that does not get better with time. Parents that have lost a child also have increased risks of many poor health outcomes such as post traumatic stress disorder, depression, psychiatric hospitalizations, guilt and heart attacks.

In 2017, over 22,000 infants died in the United States. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the leading causes were:

  • Birth defects
  • Low birthweight and preterm birth
  • Maternal pregnancy complications
  • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
  • Injuries

 

The United States infant mortality rate is consistently higher than other developed countries, 1.5 times higher than the average (3.8 deaths per 1,000 live births) among Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Within the United States, significant disparities persist in infant mortality among different racial and ethnic groups, with the most striking disparity between babies born to black women and babies born to white women.

Research indicates socioeconomic inequality in the United States is likely a primary contributor to its higher infant mortality, along with reporting methods that differ from state to state. Considerable progress has been made in the United States over the past 50 years to reduce infant mortality, however, more needs to be done.

Source:
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Premature Death, 2016 Annual Report
Measure: Premature Death, 2016 Annual Report

Why does this matter?

Premature death is a measure of years of potential life lost due to death occurring before the age of 75. Deaths at younger ages contribute more to the premature death rate than deaths occurring closer to age 75. For example, a person dying at age 70 would lose five years of potential life, whereas a child dying at age five would lose 70 years of potential life. 

According to the National Center for Health Statistics WISQARS Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) Report, cancer, unintentional injury, heart disease, suicide, deaths in the perinatal period and homicide were the leading causes of years of potential life lost before age 75 in 2019. Since 2000, increases have occurred in suicide and drug deaths, both contributing to the rise in premature death. 

Many premature deaths may be preventable through lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation or healthy eating and exercise. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that 20-40% of premature deaths are preventable.

Source:
  • CDC WONDER, Multiple Cause of Death Files, 2014



Race and ethnicity populations are as defined by the original source.

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