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Immunizations-Adolescents, 2016 Annual Report
Source:
  • America's Health Rankings composite measure, 2016


Data source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Immunization Survey, 2015 For details: www.americashealthrankings.org/AR16/immunize_teens_a


HPV Females, 2016 Annual Report
Source:
  • CDC, National Immunization Survey-Teen, 2015


Data source: CDC, National Immunization Survey, 2015 For details: www.americashealthrankings.org/AR16/immunize_hpv_female


HPV Males, 2016 Annual Report
Source:
  • CDC, National Immunization Survey-Teen, 2015


Data source: CDC, National Immunization Survey, 2015 For details: www.americashealthrankings.org/AR16/immunize_hpv_male


Meningococcal, 2016 Annual Report
Measure: Meningococcal Immunizations, 2016 Annual Report

Why does this matter?

Meningococcal disease is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis. It is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in the United States. At any given time, about 10 percent of the U.S. population are carriers of N. meningitidis, meaning the bacteria are living in the nose and throat without causing disease. The bacteria can spread when people have close or lengthy contact with another person’s respiratory secretions, such as through kissing, coughing or living in the same household.

Five serogroups (A, B, C, W and Y) cause most meningococcal disease cases in the United States. Preventing the disease remains a priority because of the potentially serious outcomes and risk of outbreaks. There were around 350 cases reported in 2017, with the highest incidence occurring among infants.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that all preteens ages 11 and 12 get the meningococcal conjugate vaccine (covers the A, C, W and Y serogroups), with a booster at age 16. Teens may also get the optional serogroup B meningococcal disease for further protection. An analysis of the effectiveness of adolescent meningococcal vaccination found that getting one dose of the vaccine at age 11 and a booster at age 16 was cost-effective and prevented the most numbers of disease cases and deaths.

Source:
  • CDC, National Immunization Survey-Teen, 2015


Data source: CDC, National Immunization Survey, 2015 For details: www.americashealthrankings.org/AR16/Immunize_mcv4


TDAP, 2016 Annual Report
Measure: Tdap Immunizations, 2016 Annual Report

Why does this matter?

Tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis are serious illnesses that are caused by bacteria. Vaccination is the most effective defense against illness and death from these diseases.

  • Tetanus (lockjaw) causes painful muscle tightening, stiffness and difficulty breathing.
  • Diphtheria can cause a thick coating to form in the throat, making it hard to breathe and swallow. It can also cause heart failure, paralysis and death
  • Pertussis (whooping cough) is an acute respiratory infection causing severe and prolonged coughing, potentially progressing to pneumonia or even death

Diphtheria and pertussis are spread through person-to-person contact, mainly via respiratory and throat secretions. Tetanus is non-communicable and enters the body through cuts, scratches and wounds.

The childhood vaccine for these diseases is called DTaP (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine) and the booster vaccine for adolescents and adults is called Tdap (tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine). The Tdap vaccine is recommended for:

  • Adolescents ages 11-18 (preferably at age 11 or 12) who have completed the recommended childhood DTaP series
  • Adults aged 19 and older who have not previously received a dose of Tdap 
  • Anyone who has close contact with infants or has not previously received Tdap
  • Pregnant women, in order to protect newborns from pertussis — infants are most at risk for severe, life-threatening illness from pertussis

Since vaccination began in the United States, reported tetanus and diphtheria cases have dropped 99 percent, and reported pertussis cases dropped 80 percent. In 2017, there were 18,975 reported cases of pertussis in the United States.

A recent literature review found that pertussis vaccination among adolescents is cost-effective. Tdap vaccination during pregnancy has also been found to be a highly cost-effective intervention that provides infants with protection against pertussis.

Source:
  • CDC, National Immunization Survey-Teen, 2015


Data source: CDC, National Immunization Survey, 2015 For details: www.americashealthrankings.org/AR16/Immunize_tdap


Immunization - Children, 2016 Annual Report
Measure: Immunizations - Children, 2016 Annual Report

Why does this matter?

Early childhood immunization is a safe and cost-effective way of protecting infants and children from potentially life-threatening preventable diseases early in life when they are most vulnerable. Infants receiving recommended immunizations by age 2 are protected from 14 diseases. Vaccinations have led to a 95% decrease in vaccine-preventable diseases in the past 50 years, leading the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to call vaccines one of the 10 greatest public health achievements of the 20th century.

After implementation of the Vaccines For Children Program in 1994, modeling estimated that among all children born between 1994 and 2013, childhood vaccinations would prevent 322 million cases of disease and 21 million hospitalizations over their lifetimes, and prevent 732,000 premature deaths due to vaccine preventable diseases. These estimates translate to net savings of $295 billion in direct costs and $1.38 trillion in total societal costs.

Source:
  • ,


Data source: CDC, National Immunization Survey, 2015 For details: www.americashealthrankings.org/AR16/Immunize


Lack of Health Insurance, 2016 Annual Report
Measure: Uninsured, 2016 Annual Report

Why does this matter?

Health insurance is critical in helping people receive the preventive and medical care they need to achieve and maintain good health. The nation’s uninsurance rate dropped significantly after the Affordable Care Act was enacted, yet nearly 29.6 million people were still uninsured in 2019. In 2016, an analysis found that 74% of uninsured adults reported that they were uninsured because they could not afford health insurance.

Compared with insured adults, uninsured adults have more health disadvantages, including: 

One study estimated that after Medicaid expansion, three states experienced a 6% decline in all-cause mortality in adults ages 20 to 64 compared with adults living in demographically and economically similar states that did not expand Medicaid. This decline was largely from medical conditions that respond well to medical management such as HIV, heart disease and diabetes.

Source:
  • U.S. Census Bureau, Health Insurance Coverage in the United States, 2014-2015


Data souce: US Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2014-2015 For details: www.americashealthrankings.org/AR16/HealthInsurance


Public Health Funding, 2016 Annual Report
Source:
  • ,


Data source: Trust For America’s Health, 2014-2015 For details: www.americashealthrankings.org/AR16/PH_Spending

Race and ethnicity populations are as defined by the original source.

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