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Supplemental Measures: Behaviors

Fruits, 2018 Annual Report
Measure: Fruits, 2018 Annual Report

Why does this matter?

According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, roughly half of adults in the United States suffer from one or more preventable chronic diseases related to poor diet and physical inactivity. Diets high in fruits and vegetables reduce the risk of many chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and obesity. Fruits contain essential vitamins and minerals and are an excellent source of fiber.

A landmark study showed that consuming three or more fruits and vegetables per day, compared to one or less, was associated with lower chances of stroke and heart disease incidence and death. Focusing on quantity rather than variety of fruit and vegetable intake is further associated with greater decreases in cardiovascular disease risk.

Source:
  • CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2017


Insufficient Sleep*, 2018 Annual Report
Measure: Insufficient Sleep, 2018 Annual Report

Why does this matter?

Insufficient sleep is a threat to public health. Sleep is critical for brain and body functions including cognition and emotion, as well as for the immune, hormonal and metabolic systems. Insufficient sleep is associated with chronic diseases, including cancer, depression, diabetes, hypertension and obesity.

Insufficient sleep is also associated with reduced productivity and quality of life and increased risk of motor vehicle and other transportation accidents, industrial accidents and medical errors. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration estimated 91,000  police-reported crashes are due to drowsy driving each year, resulting in approximately 50,000 injuries and nearly 700 deaths. 

A 2016 report by the Rand Corporation estimated insufficient sleep cost $411 billion in missed work days and reduced productivity. If those who sleep less than six hours nightly increased their sleep to between six and seven hours, an additional $226.4 billion could be added to the economy according to their analysis.

Source:
  • CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2016


Seat Belt Use, 2018 Annual Report
Measure: Seat Belt Use, 2018 Annual Report

Why does this matter?

Motor vehicle crashes are the second-leading cause of unintentional injury death in the United States. A total of 23,714 drivers and passengers died in 2016 and more than 2.6 million people were injured and treated in emergency departments as a result of motor vehicle crashes.

Wearing a seat belt is the most effective way to prevent deaths and injuries in car accidents:

  • Wearing a seat belt reduces the risk of critical injury and death by 50% and 45%, respectively.
  • More than half of teens and adults who died in crashes in 2016 were not wearing seat belts at the time of the crash.
  • In 2016, 2,456 deaths could have been prevented if all passenger-vehicle occupants had been restrained.

 

Non-fatal injuries to drivers and passengers resulted in more than $48 billion in lifetime medical costs and lost work productivity in 2016.

Source:
  • CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2017


Vegetables, 2018 Annual Report
Measure: Vegetables, 2018 Annual Report

Why does this matter?

According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, roughly half of adults in the United States suffer from one or more preventable chronic diseases related to poor diet and physical inactivity. Diets high in fruits and vegetables reduce the risk of many chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and obesity. Vegetables contain essential vitamins and minerals and are an excellent source of fiber.

A landmark study showed that consuming three or more fruits and vegetables per day, compared to one or less, was associated with lower stroke and heart disease incidence and death. Focusing on quantity rather than variety of fruit and vegetable intake is further associated with greater decreases in cardiovascular disease risk.

Source:
  • CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2017
*The data appearing in this edition are the same that appeared in the 2017 edition.

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