Executive HighlightsIntroductionKey FindingsSocial and Economic FactorsPhysical EnvironmentClinical CareBehaviorsHealth OutcomesInternational ComparisonState SummariesAlabamaAlaskaArizonaArkansasCaliforniaColoradoConnecticutDelawareDistrict of ColumbiaFloridaGeorgiaHawaiiIdahoIllinoisIndianaIowaKansasKentuckyLouisianaMaineMarylandMassachusettsMichiganMinnesotaMississippiMissouriMontanaNebraskaNevadaNew HampshireNew JerseyNew MexicoNew YorkNorth CarolinaNorth DakotaOhioOklahomaOregonPennsylvaniaRhode IslandSouth CarolinaSouth DakotaTennesseeTexasUtahVermontVirginiaWashingtonWest VirginiaWisconsinWyomingUS SummaryAppendixMeasures TableData Source DescriptionsThe Team
Air pollution and severe housing problems improved, but COVID-19 is expected to impact severe housing problems.
Definition: Average exposure of the general public to particulate matter of 2.5 microns or less measured in micrograms per cubic meter (μg/m3).
Air pollution is associated with heart and lung problems and premature death in those with heart or lung disease according to the Environmental Protection Agency. Annually, an estimated 200,000 premature deaths occur in the United States from combustion emissions alone. According to the CDC, small, fine pollutant particles from sources such as automobile exhaust or power plants can penetrate deeply into lung tissue and enter the bloodstream. Exposure to fine particle air pollution is linked to problems with respiratory and cardiovascular functions according to the CDC.
Severe housing problems
Definition: Percentage of occupied housing units with at least one of the following problems: lack of complete kitchen facilities, lack of plumbing facilities, overcrowding or severely cost-burdened occupants.
Between 2008-2012 and 2013-2017, severe housing problems decreased 8% nationally from 19.0% to 17.5% of occupied housing units (Figure 17). Over the same period, the percentage of severe housing problems declined significantly in 36 states, led by Nevada (17% from 22.6% to 18.8%) and Utah (15% from 16.0% to 13.6%) (Figure 18).
Severe housing problems vary across states and by race and ethnicity. In 2013-2017, severe housing problems were highest in Hawaii (26.7%), California (26.4%) and New York (23.5%), and lowest in West Virginia (11.2%) and North Dakota (11.6%). During this time, Hispanic households had the highest percentage, followed by Black, American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian/Pacific Islander and white households (Figure 19).