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SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS - WOMEN

Community and Family Safety

Firearm Deaths*
Deaths due to firearm injury of any intent (unintentional, suicide, homicide, or undetermined) per 100,000 females ages 20-44.
CDC WONDER, Multiple Cause of Death Files, 2018-2020
Intimate Partner Violence Before Pregnancy*
Percentage of women with a recent live birth who experienced violence by husband or partner (current or former) in the 12 months before pregnancy.
CDC, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System or state equivalent, 2020
Violent Crime
Number of murders, rapes, robberies and aggravated assaults per 100,000 population.
Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Reporting Program, 2019

Economic Resources

Concentrated Disadvantage^
Percentage of households (with children) that are located in census tracts for which the averaged z-score of the following factors is above the 75th percentile: family households below the poverty line, individuals receiving public assistance, female-headed households, unemployment ages 16 and older and population younger than 18.
U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2016-2020
Food Insecurity
Percentage of households unable to provide adequate food for one or more household members due to lack of resources.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Household Food Security in the United States Report, 2018-2020
Gender Pay Gap*‡
Women’s median annual earnings as a percentage of men’s median annual earnings for full-time, year-round civilian workers ages 16 and older.
U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2019
Poverty‡
Percentage of females ages 18-44 who live below the poverty level.
U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2019
Unemployment
Percentage of the female civilian workforce that is unemployed.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2020

Education

College Graduate
Percentage of women ages 25-44 who graduated from a college or technical school.
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2019-2020

Social Support and Engagement

Infant Child Care Cost*
Average cost for center-based infant care as a percentage of married couple’s median income.
Child Care Aware, High Price of Child Care Report, 2021 Report
Residential Segregation - Black/White
Index of dissimilarity, with higher values indicating greater segregation between Black and white residents, ranging from 0 (complete integration) to 100 (complete segregation).
U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2016-2020
Voter Participation (Average)‡^
Average of the percentage of female U.S. citizens ages 18 and older who voted in the last presidential and national midterm elections.
U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Voting and Registration Supplement, 2018/2020

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT - WOMEN AND CHILDREN

Air and Water Quality

Air Pollution
Average exposure of the general public to particulate matter of 2.5 microns or less, measured in micrograms per cubic meter.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2018-2020
Drinking Water Violations
Percentage of population served by community water systems with a serious drinking water violation during the year.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, Safe Drinking Water Information System, 2021
Household Smoke
Percentage of children ages 0-17 who live in households where someone uses cigarettes, cigars or pipe tobacco.
National Survey of Children's Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), 2020-2021
Risk-screening Environmental Indicator Score
Estimated human health-related risk from exposure to toxic chemicals based on emission data of more than 600 chemicals, with higher scores denoting elevated risk.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Toxic Release Inventory National Analysis, 2020
Water Fluoridation‡
Percentage of population served by community water systems that have fluoridated water.
CDC, Water Fluoridation Reporting System, 2018

Climate Change

Climate Change Policies*
Number of the following state policies in place: legally binding electricity portfolio standards, carbon pricing policies, climate change action plans and economy-wide greenhouse gas emission targets.
Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, 2021
Transportation Energy Use*
Amount of energy (in trillions of BTUs) consumed by the transportation of people and goods per 100,000 population.
U.S. Energy Information Administration, State Energy Data System, 2020

Housing and Transit

Drive Alone to Work‡
Percentage of female workers ages 16 and older who drive alone to work.
U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2019
Housing With Lead Risk‡
Percentage of housing stock with potential elevated lead risk due to age of housing.
U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2019
Severe Housing Problems
Percentage of occupied housing units with at least one of the following problems: lack of complete kitchen facilities, lack of plumbing facilities, overcrowding or severely cost-burdened occupants.
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Comprehensive Housing Affordability Strategy, 2014-2018

CLINICAL CARE - WOMEN

Access to Care

Adequate Prenatal Care
Percentage of live births in which the mother received prenatal care beginning in the first four months of pregnancy with the appropriate number of visits for the infant's gestational age.
March of Dimes, Perinatal Data Center, 2020
Avoided Care Due to Cost
Percentage of women ages 18-44 who reported a time in the past 12 months when they needed to see a doctor but could not because of cost.
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2019-2020
Publicly-funded Women's Health Services‡
Percentage of likely need for contraceptive services among women with a family income 250% below the federal poverty level and women younger than 20 years met by publicly-funded clinics.
Guttmacher Institute, Publicly Supported Family Planning Services in the United States: Likely Need, Availability and Impact, 2016
Uninsured Women‡
Percentage of women ages 19-44 not covered by private or public health insurance.
U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2019
Women's Health Providers
Number of obstetricians, gynecologists and midwives per 100,000 females ages 15 and older.
U.S. HHS, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, National Plan and Provider Enumeration System, September 2021

Preventive Clinical Care

Cervical Cancer Screening
Percentage of women ages 21-44 who reported receiving a Pap smear within the past three years.
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2020
Dental Visit
Percentage of women ages 18-44 who reported visiting a dentist or dental clinic within the past year.
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2020
Flu Vaccination
Percentage of women ages 18-44 who reported receiving a seasonal flu vaccine in the past 12 months.
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2019-2020
Postpartum Visit*
Percentage of women with a recent live birth who reported receiving a postpartum checkup.
CDC, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System or state equivalent, 2020
Well-woman Visit
Percentage of women ages 18-44 with a preventive medical visit in the past year.
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2019-2020

Quality of Care

Breastfeeding Initiation*
Percentage of infants who were breastfed during the period between birth and discharge from the hospital.
CDC WONDER, Natality Public Use Files, 2020
Dedicated Health Care Provider
Percentage of women ages 18-44 who reported having a personal doctor or health care provider.
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2019-2020
Low-risk Cesarean Delivery
Percentage of singleton, head-first, term (37 or more completed weeks) first births that were cesarean deliveries.
CDC WONDER, Natality Public Use Files, 2020
Maternity Practices Score
Maternity Practices in Infant and Nutrition Care (mPINC) survey score based on seven birth facility policies and practices, with higher scores denoting better maternity care policies and practices.
CDC, mPINC State Reports, 2020

BEHAVIORS - WOMEN

Nutrition and Physical Activity

Exercise‡
Percentage of women ages 18-44 who met the federal physical activity guidelines (150 minutes of moderate or 75 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity and two days of muscle strengthening per week) in the past 30 days.
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2019
Fruit and Vegetable Consumption‡
Percentage of women ages 18-44 who reported consuming two or more fruits and three or more vegetables daily.
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2019
Physical Inactivity
Percentage of women ages 18-44 who reported doing no physical activity or exercise other than their regular job in the past 30 days.
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2019-2020

Sexual Health

Chlamydia
Number of new cases of chlamydia per 100,000 females ages 15-44.
CDC, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Atlas, 2020
High-risk HIV Behaviors
Percentage of women ages 18-44 who reported any of the following in the past year: injected any drug other than those prescribed for you; have been treated for a sexually transmitted disease or STD; or given or received money or drugs in exchange for sex.
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2019-2020
Unintended Pregnancy*
Percentage of women with a recent live birth who did not want to become pregnant or wanted to become pregnant later.
CDC, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System or state equivalent, 2020

Sleep Health

Insufficient Sleep
Percentage of women ages 18-44 who reported sleeping, on average, fewer than seven hours in a 24-hour period.
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2020

Smoking and Tobacco Use

E-cigarette Use*
Percentage of women ages 18-44 who reported using e-cigarettes or other electronic vaping products at least once in their lifetime and now use daily or some days.
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2020
Smoking
Percentage of women ages 18-44 who reported smoking at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and currently smoke daily or some days.
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2019-2020
Smoking During Pregnancy
Percentage of mothers who reported smoking cigarettes during pregnancy.
CDC WONDER, Natality Public Use Files, 2020

HEALTH OUTCOMES - WOMEN

Behavioral Health

Drug Deaths*
Number of deaths due to drug injury (unintentional, suicide, homicide or undetermined) per 100,000 females ages 20-44.
CDC WONDER, Multiple Cause of Death Files, 2018-2020
Excessive Drinking
Percentage of females ages 18-44 who reported binge drinking (four or more drinks on one occasion in the past 30 days) or heavy drinking (eight or more drinks per week).
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2019-2020
Frequent Mental Distress
Percentage of women ages 18-44 who reported their mental health was not good 14 or more days in the past 30 days.
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2019-2020
Illicit Drug Use
Percentage of women ages 18-49 who reported misusing prescription psychotherapeutics (pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants or sedatives) or using cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants or methamphetamine in the past year.
SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2019-2020
Postpartum Depression*
Percentage of women with a recent live birth who reported experiencing depressive symptoms.
CDC, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System or state equivalent, 2020

Mortality

Maternal Mortality*
Number of deaths related to or aggravated by pregnancy (excluding accidental or incidental causes) occurring within 42 days of the end of a pregnancy per 100,000 live births.
Federally Available Data, Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, 2016-2020
Mortality Rate
Number of deaths per 100,000 women ages 20-44.
CDC WONDER, Multiple Cause of Death Files, 2020

Physical Health

Frequent Physical Distress
Percentage of women ages 18-44 who reported their physical health was not good 14 or more days in the past 30 days.
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2019-2020
High Blood Pressure‡
Percentage of women ages 18-44 who reported being told by a health professional that they have high blood pressure.
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2019
High Health Status*
Percentage of women ages 18-44 who reported that their health is very good or excellent.
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2019-2020
Multiple Chronic Conditions
Percentage of women ages 18-44 who have three or more of the following chronic health conditions: arthritis, asthma, CKD, COPD, CVD (heart disease, heart attack, or stroke), cancer (excluding skin), depression or diabetes.
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2019-2020
Arthritis*
Percentage of women ages 18-44 who reported being told by a health professional that they have some form of arthritis.
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2019-2020
Asthma*
Percentage of women ages 18-44 who reported being told by a health professional that they currently have asthma.
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2019-2020
Cancer*
Percentage of women ages 18-44 who reported being told by a health professional that they had any type of cancer (excluding skin cancer).
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2019-2020
Cardiovascular Disease*
Percentage of women ages 18-44 who reported being told by a health professional that they had angina or coronary heart disease, a heart attack or myocardial infarction, or a stroke.
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2019-2020
Chronic Kidney Disease*
Percentage of women ages 18-44 who reported being told by a health professional that they have kidney disease (excluding kidney stones, bladder infection or incontinence).
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2019-2020
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease*
Percentage of women ages 18-44 who reported being told by a health professional that they have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema or chronic bronchitis.
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2019-2020
Depression*
Percentage of women ages 18-44 who reported being told by a health professional that they have a depressive disorder, including depression, major depression, minor depression or dysthymia.
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2019-2020
Diabetes*
Percentage of women ages 18-44 who reported being told by a health professional that they have diabetes (excluding prediabetes and gestational diabetes).
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2019-2020
Obesity
Percentage of women ages 18-44 with a body mass index of 30.0 or higher based on reported height and weight.
CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2019-2020
Severe Maternal Morbidity*^
Number of significant life-threatening maternal complications during delivery per 10,000 delivery hospitalizations.
Federally Available Data, Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, 2019

DEMOGRAPHICS - WOMEN

Population - Women Ages 18-44*
Percentage of population that is female, ages 18-44.
U.S. Census Bureau, 2020
‡ Data in this edition were repeated from the last edition. * Not included in the calculation of overall, model category or topic summation measures. ^ Data for each of the components are available in the Explore section. Note: All Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for New Jersey are from 2017 or 2020.

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