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SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS - CHILDREN

Community and Family Safety

Child Victimization*
Number of children who were victims of substantiated or indicated maltreatment per 1,000 children.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Children’s Bureau, Child Maltreatment Report, 2020
Firearm Deaths*
Deaths due to firearm injury per 100,000 children ages 1-19.
CDC WONDER, Multiple Cause of Death Files, 2018-2020

Economic Resources

Children in Poverty‡
Percentage of children younger than 18 years who live in households below the poverty threshold.
U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2019
Children in Poverty Racial Disparity
Ratio of the racial/ethnic group with the highest childhood poverty rate (varies by state) to the non-Hispanic white rate.
U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2016-2020
High-speed Internet‡
Percentage of households with children under age 18 that have a broadband internet subscription and a computer, smartphone or tablet.
U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2019
Students Experiencing Homelessness
Percentage of public school students who lack a fixed, regular and adequate nighttime residence.
U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Homeless Education, Federal Data Summary, 2020
WIC Coverage
Percentage of children ages 0-4 eligible for the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) who received WIC benefits in an average month.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, WIC Eligibility and Coverage Rates, 2019

Education

Early Childhood Education‡
Percentage of children ages 3-4 who are enrolled in nursery school, preschool or kindergarten.
U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2019
Fourth Grade Reading Proficiency‡
Percentage of fourth grade public school students who scored proficient or above on the National Assessment of Educational Progress in reading comprehension.
U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress, 2019
High School Graduation‡
Percentage of high school students graduating with a regular high school diploma within four years of starting ninth grade.
U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data, 2018-2019 School Year
High School Graduation Racial Disparity‡
Difference between the high school graduation rates of white students and the racial/ethnic group with the lowest rate (varies by state).
U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data, 2018-2019 School Year

Social Support and Engagement

Adverse Childhood Experiences^
Percentage of children ages 0-17 who have ever experienced two or more of the following: parental divorce or separation; living with someone who had an alcohol or drug problem; neighborhood violence victim or witness; living with someone who was mentally ill, suicidal or severely depressed; domestic violence witness; parent served jail time; being treated or judged unfairly due to race/ethnicity; or death of a parent.
National Survey of Children's Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), 2020-2021
Foster Care Instability
Percentage of children in foster care with three or more placements within 12 months.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Children's Bureau, Child Welfare Outcomes Report, 2020
Neighborhood Amenities
Percentage of children ages 0-17 with access to all of the following: a park or playground; recreation center, community center or boys' and girls' club; library or bookmobile; and sidewalks or walking paths.
National Survey of Children's Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), 2020-2021
Reading, Singing or Storytelling
Percentage of children ages 0-5 whose family members read, sang or told stories to them every day during the past week.
National Survey of Children's Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), 2020-2021

CLINICAL CARE - CHILDREN

Access to Care

ADD/ADHD Treatment^
Percentage of children ages 3-17 who currently have ADD or ADHD and are taking medication and received behavioral treatment.
National Survey of Children's Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), 2020-2021
Pediatricians
Number of pediatricians per 100,000 children ages 0-21.
U.S. HHS, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, National Plan and Provider Enumeration System, September 2021
Uninsured Children‡
Percentage of children younger than 19 years not covered by private or public health insurance.
U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2019

Preventive Clinical Care

Childhood Immunizations
Percentage of children who received by age 24 months all recommended doses of the combined seven-vaccine series: diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine; measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine; poliovirus vaccine; Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine; hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine; varicella vaccine; and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV).
CDC, National Immunization Survey-Child (Birth Cohort), 2017-2018
HPV Vaccination
Percentage of adolescents ages 13-17 who received all recommended doses of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine.
CDC, National Immunization Survey-Teen, 2020
Preventive Dental Care
Percentage of children ages 1-17 who had one or more preventive dental care visits during the past 12 months.
National Survey of Children's Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), 2020-2021
Well-child Visit
Percentage of children ages 0-17 who received one or more preventive visits in the past 12 months.
National Survey of Children's Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), 2020-2021

Quality of Care

Adequate Insurance
Percentage of children ages 0-17 who were continuously insured in the past year with adequate coverage based on the following criteria: the benefits meet the child’s needs, the insurance allows the child to see needed providers and the insurance either has no or reasonable out-of-pocket expenses.
National Survey of Children's Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), 2020-2021
Developmental Screening
Percentage of children ages 9-35 months whose parent completed a standardized developmental screening tool in the past 12 months.
National Survey of Children's Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), 2020-2021
Medical Home
Percentage of children ages 0-17 who received coordinated, ongoing and comprehensive care within a medical home that served as a consistent, non-emergency source of care and where they had a personal doctor or nurse and access to family-centered care, referrals when needed, and effective care coordination.
National Survey of Children's Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), 2020-2021

BEHAVIORS - CHILDREN

Nutrition and Physical Activity

Breastfed
Percentage of infants exclusively breastfed for six months.
CDC, National Immunization Survey-Child (Birth Cohort), 2019
Food Sufficiency
Percentage of children ages 0-17 whose household could always afford to eat good nutritious meals in the past 12 months.
National Survey of Children's Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), 2020-2021
Physical Activity
Percentage of children ages 6-17 who were physically active at least 60 minutes every day in the past week.
National Survey of Children's Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), 2020-2021
Soda Consumption - Youth*‡
Percentage of high school students who reported drinking a can, bottle or glass of soda or pop two or more times per day in the past week.
CDC, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 2019

Sexual Health

Dual Contraceptive Nonuse - Youth*‡
Percentage of sexually active high school students who reported not using both: a condom during last sexual intercourse; and either birth control pills, an intrauterine device or implant, or a shot, patch or birth control ring before last sexual intercourse.
CDC, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 2019
Teen Births
Births per 1,000 females ages 15-19.
CDC WONDER, Natality Public Use Files, 2020

Sleep Health

Adequate Sleep
Percentage of children ages 6-17 who sleep recommended age-appropriate hours on most weeknights.
National Survey of Children's Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), 2020-2021
Sleep Position*
Percentage of women with a recent live birth who reported their infants are usually placed on their backs to sleep.
CDC, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System or state equivalent, 2020

Smoking and Tobacco Use

Electronic Vapor Product Use - Youth*‡
Percentage of high school students who reported using an electronic vapor product in the past 30 days.
CDC, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 2019
Tobacco Use - Youth
Percentage of children ages 12-17 who reported using a tobacco product (cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, cigars, or pipe tobacco) in the past month
SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2019-2020

HEALTH OUTCOMES - CHILDREN

Behavioral Health

Alcohol Use - Youth
Percentage of children ages 12-17 who reported drinking alcohol in the past month.
SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2019-2020
Anxiety
Percentage of children ages 3-17 who currently have anxiety problems.
National Survey of Children's Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), 2020-2021
Depression
Percentage of children ages 3-17 who currently have depression.
National Survey of Children's Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), 2020-2021
Flourishing
Percentage of children ages 6 months to 5 years who show affection, resilience, interest and curiosity in learning, and smile and laugh a lot; and children ages 6-17 who show self-regulation, interest and curiosity in learning, and work to finish tasks.
National Survey of Children's Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), 2020-2021
Illicit Drug Use - Youth
Percentage of children ages 12-17 who reported using illicit drugs, including marijuana, in the past month.
SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2019-2020
Teen Suicide*
Number of deaths by suicide per 100,000 adolescents ages 15-19.
CDC WONDER, Multiple Cause of Death Files, 2018-2020

Mortality

Child Mortality
Number of deaths per 100,000 children ages 1-19.
CDC WONDER, Multiple Cause of Death Files, 2018-2020
Infant Mortality
Number of infant deaths (before age 1) per 1,000 live births.
CDC WONDER, Linked Birth/Infant Death Files, 2018-2019
Neonatal Mortality*
Number of deaths during first 28 days of life (0-27 days) per 1,000 live births.
CDC WONDER, Linked Birth/Infant Death Files, 2018-2019

Physical Health

Asthma
Percentage of children ages 0-17 who currently have asthma.
National Survey of Children's Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), 2020-2021
High Health Status*
Percentage of children ages 0-17 whose health is very good or excellent.
National Survey of Children's Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), 2020-2021
Low Birthweight
Percentage of infants weighing less than 2,500 grams (5 pounds, 8 ounces) at birth.
CDC WONDER, Natality Public Use Files, 2020
Low Birthweight Racial Disparity
Ratio of the low birthweight rate of the racial/ethnic group with the highest rate (varies by state) to the non-Hispanic white rate.
CDC WONDER, Natality Public Use Files, 2020
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome*
Number of birth hospitalizations with a diagnosis code of neonatal abstinence syndrome (withdrawal symptoms due to prenatal exposure to illicit drugs) per 1,000 birth hospitalizations.
Federally Available Data, Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, 2019
Overweight or Obesity - Youth
Percentage of children ages 10-17 who are overweight or obese for their age based upon reported height and weight.
National Survey of Children's Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), 2020-2021

DEMOGRAPHICS - CHILDREN

Children with Special Health Care Needs*
Percentage of children ages 0-17 with special health care needs.
National Survey of Children's Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), 2020-2021
Population - Infants Age <1*
Percentage of population under age 1.
U.S. Census Bureau, 2020
Population - Children Ages <18*
Percentage of population under age 18.
U.S. Census Bureau, 2020
‡ Data in this edition were repeated from the last edition. * Not included in the calculation of overall, model category or topic summation measures. ^ Data for each of the components are available in the Explore section.

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