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Concentrated Disadvantage, 2019 Health Of Women And Children Report
Measure: Concentrated Disadvantage, 2019 Health Of Women And Children Report

Why does this matter?    

Concentrated disadvantage is a life course indicator used to measure community well-being. It provides a broad, community-level look at geographically concentrated poverty and economic segregation, and how the interaction of economic and social factors affects health outcomes throughout the lifespan.

Living in an area of high concentrated disadvantage is associated with:

The Moving to Opportunity study found that moving from neighborhoods with high poverty to those with low poverty improved mental health outcomes and reduced risk-taking behaviors after roughly 5 years in adolescent girls but not boys.

Source:
  • U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2013-2017



Food Insecurity - Household, 2019 Health Of Women And Children Report
Measure: Food Insecurity, 2019 Health Of Women And Children Report

Why does this matter?

Food insecurity is a social and economic condition where access to food is limited or uncertain. It differs from hunger in that hunger is a physiological feeling. Food insecurity is a complex problem and does not exist in isolation for low-income families. Many of the same families also struggle with issues like affordable housing, medical costs and low wages. The pandemic also heightened food insecurity. 

Food insecurity has broad effects on health due to the mental and physical stress that it places on the body. Children are particularly susceptible to the negative impacts of food insecurity because their brains and bodies are still developing. Among children, food insecurity is associated with anemia; asthma; depression and anxiety; cognitive and behavioral problems; and higher risk of being hospitalized.

Health-related costs attributed to hunger were conservatively estimated at $160 billion in 2014. Adding in lost economic productivity, education costs (such as special education support and costs of school dropout) and charity to combat hunger brings the total to $178.9 billion. A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention study found that food insecure adults had annual health care expenditures $1,834 higher than food secure adults, for a cumulative median cost of $687 million per state.

Source:
  • U.S. Department of Agriculture, Household Food Security in the United States Report, 2015-2017



Intimate Partner Violence-Lifetime, 2019 Health Of Women And Children Report
Measure: Intimate Partner Violence-Lifetime, 2019 Health Of Women And Children Report

Why does this matter?

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a complex form of violence that includes psychological, physical and sexual components. It is characterized by harm to an individual caused by the behaviors or actions of a current or former intimate partner. IPV can lead to lasting physical and mental health issues, and even death. Over half of all female homicides are related to IPV, and of all women who are killed by an intimate partner, approximately 10 percent had experienced violence in the month preceding their death.

IPV occurring at any time over the lifetime or continuing chronically over a number of years can be considered lifetime IPV. Lifetime IPV can include experiences of stalking, or any repeated unwanted attention either in person or over technological platforms. Though IPV exists in many forms, the majority of IPV research has focused solely on physical abuse. According to the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, more than one in three women in the United States report experiencing physical IPV in their lifetime, and those who experience IPV can suffer from numerous negative health outcomes and the effects can be felt long after the abuse ends.

Individuals who experience IPV are at increased risk of:

  • Physical conditions: Physical conditions that may result from IPV include injuries, fibromyalgia and gastrointestinal disorders
  • Reproductive health conditions: Sexually transmitted infections, unintended pregnancy and reproductive difficulties, such as infertility. IPV can also increase women’s risk of contracting HIV through forced sex and/or the inability to negotiate safer sex practices
  • Psychological illnesses: Depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder
  • Social consequences:  Including homelessness and social isolation
  • Negative health behaviors: Including substance abuse, eating disorders and unsafe sexual behavior

One study estimated the cost of IPV to U.S. society, including health costs and productivity losses, to be $5.8 billion, including $4.2 billion for physical violence, $320 million for partner rape, and $342 million for partner stalking (in 1995 dollars). Converted to 2017 dollars, the cost of IPV in the United States would be $9.3 billion annually.

Source:
  • CDC, National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, 2010-2012



Intimate Partner Violence-Pregnancy, 2019 Health Of Women And Children Report
Measure: Intimate Partner Violence-Pregnancy, 2019 Health Of Women And Children Report

Why does this matter?

Intimate partner violence is a complex form of violence that includes psychological, physical and sexual components. It is characterized by harm to an individual caused by the behaviors or actions of a current or former intimate partner. Intimate partner violence can lead to lasting physical and mental health issues, and even death. Over half of all female homicides are related to intimate partner violence, and of all women who are killed by an intimate partner, approximately 10 percent had experienced violence in the month preceding their death.

In addition to the woman’s physical health, violence during pregnancy can affect infant health, especially when violent acts target the woman’s abdomen.

Estimates of intimate partner violence during pregnancy vary depending on the definition of abuse and the population being studied. The Maternal and Child Health Bureau reported that from 2009 to 2010, approximately 4 percent of women with a recent live birth in a 30-state area reported that they had been pushed, hit, slapped, kicked, choked or physically hurt in some way by an intimate partner in the 12 months prior to becoming pregnant. About 3 percent reported experiencing this type of abuse during their most recent pregnancy. Unfortunately, the true prevalence is likely underestimated due to a reluctance of women to disclose intimate partner violence, especially during pregnancy.

Effects of intimate partner violence on pregnant women may include:

  • Severe nausea, vomiting and/or dehydration
  • Kidney, urinary tract, cervical and uterine infections
  • Exacerbation of existing medical conditions, such as diabetes
  • Engagement in negative health behaviors during pregnancy, such as alcohol and/or drug use, smoking and delaying prenatal care
  • Insufficient weight gain during pregnancy
  • Increased risk of vaginal bleeding, miscarriage, preterm labor and/or preterm birth
  • Negative effects on the infant, including low birthweight, fetal injury, stillbirth and lack of emotional attachment to the child
  • Depression and suicide
Source:
  • CDC, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System or state equivalent, 2017

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