America's Health Rankings, United Health Foundation Logo


Low Disparities1

  • Between metropolitan3 and non-metropolitan3 areas for low birthweight
  • Between Hispanic3 and white3 for infant mortality
  • Between females2 and males2 for unemployment

High Disparities

  • Between Hispanic2 and white3 for high health status
  • Between Black2 and Asian/Pacific Islander3 for food insecurity
  • Between less than a high school education2 and college graduates3 for physical inactivity

[1] Low disparities within a state does not indicate that all populations are doing well. Consider rates in comparison to national averages.
[2] Rates worse than national average.
[3] Rates same or better than national average.


  • 37% decrease in Frequent Mental Distress in adults with less than a high school education between 2011-2013 and 2017-2019 from 16.7% to 10.6%
  • 34% decrease in Less Than a High School Education in the multiracial population between 2005-2009 and 2015-2019 from 10.2% to 6.7%
  • 55% decrease in Avoided Care Due to Cost in the American Indian/Alaska Native population between 2011- 2013 and 2017-2019 from 27.1% to 12.2%
  • 36% increase in Depression in Hispanic adults between 2011- 2013 and 2017-2019 from 10.4% to 14.1%
  • 21% increase in Poverty in households headed by an adult with some college education between 2005-2009 and 2015-2019 from 10.2% to 12.3%
  • 15% increase in Physical Inactivity in adults with less than a high school education between 2011-2013 and 2017-2019 from 32.3% to 37.0%


Income Inequality

Income inequality measures the ratio of median household income of the 20% richest to the 20% poorest. A high ratio indicates greater income inequality. Research demonstrates an association between greater income disparity and poorer population health.
In California, income inequality has decreased since 2011. California’s ratio is currently higher than the national ratio.

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