Executive BriefIntroductionDesignNational FindingsKey FindingsSocial and Economic FactorsPhysical EnvironmentClinical CareBehaviorsHealth OutcomesState SummariesAlabamaAlaskaArizonaArkansasCaliforniaColoradoConnecticutDelawareDistrict of ColumbiaFloridaGeorgiaHawaiiIdahoIllinoisIndianaIowaKansasKentuckyLouisianaMaineMarylandMassachusettsMichiganMinnesotaMississippiMissouriMontanaNebraskaNevadaNew HampshireNew JerseyNew MexicoNew YorkNorth CarolinaNorth DakotaOhioOklahomaOregonPennsylvaniaRhode IslandSouth CarolinaSouth DakotaTennesseeTexasUtahVermontVirginiaWashingtonWest VirginiaWisconsinWyomingU.S. SummaryAppendixMeasuresData SourcesMethodologyNational Advisory CommitteeThe Team
- Between females3 and males2 for unemployment
- Between white2 and Hispanic3 for cancer
- Between metropolitan2 and non-metropolitan3 areas for low birthweight
- Between those with less than a high school education2 and college graduates3 for high health status
- Between Black2 and white3 for food insecurity
- Between American Indian/Alaska Native2 and white3 for child poverty
 Low disparities within a state does not indicate that all populations are doing well. Consider rates in comparison to national averages.
 Rates worse than national average.
 Rates same or better than national average.
26% decrease in Infant Mortality in Black infants between 2003-2006 and 2015-2018 from 14.8 to 10.9 deaths (before age 1) per 1,000 live births
30% decrease among those with Less Than a High School Education in the female population between 2005-2009 and 2015-2019 from 13.1% to 9.2%
33% decrease in Avoided Care Due to Cost in Black adults between 2011-2013 and 2017-2019 from 19.7% to 13.2%
31% increase in Multiple Chronic Conditions in college graduates between 2011-2013 and 2017-2019 from 4.9% to 6.4%
19% increase in Poverty in male-headed households between 2005-2009 and 2015-2019 from 7.5% to 8.9%
24% increase in Diabetes in adults with some college education between 2011-2013 and 2017-2019 from 8.7% to 10.8%
Income inequality measures the ratio of median household income of the 20% richest to the 20% poorest. A high ratio indicates greater income inequality. Research demonstrates an association between greater income disparity and poorer population health.
In Pennsylvania, income inequality has decreased since 2011. Pennsylvania’s ratio is currently lower than the national ratio.