America's Health Rankings, United Health Foundation Logo


Low Disparities1

  • Between females2 and males2 for less than a high school education
  • Between Black2 and Asian/Pacific Islander3 for unemployment
  • Between metropolitan2 and non-metropolitan3 areas for low birthweight

High Disparities

  • Between those with less than a high school education2 and college graduates3 for high health status
  • Between American Indian/Alaska Native2 and Asian/Pacific Islander3 for able-bodied
  • Between Hispanic2 and white3 for dedicated health care provider

[1] Low disparities within a state does not indicate that all populations are doing well. Consider rates in comparison to national averages.
[2] Rates worse than national average.
[3] Rates same or better than national average.


  • 17% decrease in Infant Mortality in Black infants between 2003-2006 and 2015-2018 from 12.2 to 10.1 deaths (before age 1) per 1,000 live births
  • 40% decrease in Unemployment in American Indian/Alaska Native civilians between 2005-2009 and 2015-2019 from 8.6% to 5.2%
  • 19% decrease in Smoking in male adults between 2011-2013 and 2017-2019 from 21.9% to 17.8%
  • 57% increase in Multiple Chronic Conditions in adults with less than a high school education between 2011- 2013 and 2017-2019 from 8.9% to 14.0%
  • 27% increase in Cardiovascular Disease in female adults between 2011-2013 and 2017-2019 from 6.3% to 8.0%
  • 21% increase in Diabetes in white adults between 2011-2013 and 2017-2019 from 9.5% to 11.5%


Income Inequality

Income inequality measures the ratio of median household income of the 20% richest to the 20% poorest. A high ratio indicates greater income inequality. Research demonstrates an association between greater income disparity and poorer population health.
In Texas, income inequality has decreased since 2011. Texas’ ratio is currently lower than the national ratio.

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