Executive SummaryIntroductionExplore the Health of Women, Children and InfantsFindingsThe Health of Women and Children between StatesThe Health of Women and Children within StatesHealthy Communities for ChildrenClinical Preventive Services for ChildrenRacial Disparities in Measures of MortalityVariations in SmokingMeasures of Women's HealthBehaviors | Measures of Women’s HealthCommunity & Environment | Measures of Women’s HealthPolicy | Measures of Women’s HealthClinical Care | Measures of Women’s HealthOutcomes | Measures of Women’s HealthMeasures of Infants' HealthBehaviors | Measures of Infants’ HealthCommunity & Environment | Measures of Infants’ HealthPolicy | Measures of Infants’ HealthClinical Care | Measures of Infants’ HealthOutcomes | Measures of Infants’ HealthMeasures of Children's HealthBehaviors | Measures of Children’s HealthCommunity & Environment | Measures of Children’s HealthPolicy | Measures of Children’s HealthClinical Care | Measures of Children’s HealthOutcomes | Measures of Children’s HealthState SummariesAlabamaAlaskaArizonaArkansasCaliforniaColoradoConnecticutDelawareFloridaGeorgiaHawaiiIdahoIllinoisIndianaIowaKansasKentuckyLouisianaMaineMarylandMassachusettsMichiganMinnesotaMississippiMissouriMontanaNebraskaNevadaNew HampshireNew JerseyNew MexicoNew YorkNorth CarolinaNorth DakotaOhioOklahomaOregonPennsylvaniaRhode IslandSouth CarolinaSouth DakotaTennesseeTexasUtahVermontVirginiaWashingtonWest VirginiaWisconsinWyomingDistrict of ColumbiaUnited StatesAppendixData Sources and Measures of Women’s HealthData Sources and Measures of Infants’ HealthData Sources and Measures of Children’s HealthMethodologyModel DevelopmentAmerica’s Health Rankings® Health of Women and Children Steering GroupThe Team
Stark differences between and within states appear when mortality measures of women and children are examined by race/ethnicity. For two of the mortality measures blacks have substantially higher death rates; infant mortality is 2.1 times higher among blacks compared with whites (Figure 13) and child mortality is 1.5 times higher among blacks compared with whites (Figure 14). The infant mortality rate is also higher among American Indian/Alaskan Natives (AIAN) (8.0 per 1,000 live births) compared with Asian (4.1 per 1,000 live births) and Hispanic (5.6 per 1,000 live births) populations. For child mortality, Hispanics (18.2 deaths per 100,000 children aged 1 to 18) have a lower rate than whites (20.5 deaths per 100,000).
Within individual states, the black/white infant mortality ratio is 2.9 times higher in Wisconsin and 2.7 times higher in Delaware and Illinois; the ratio is 3.3 times higher in the District of Columbia. For child mortality, Nebraska and Illinois have child mortality rates that are 2.2 times higher for blacks compared with whites. In Alabama, Colorado, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington the child mortality rate among blacks is 1.1 times higher compared with whites. For teen suicide and drug deaths among women, whites have substantially higher death rates than blacks and Hispanics. In the United States, twice as many white youth aged 15 to 19 commit suicide than black youth (Figure 15). This varies between states ranging from a rate approximately 3.0 times higher among whites compared with blacks in Georgia to 1.1 times higher among whites compared with blacks in California. (Note: comparisons are not available in states with a small number of teen suicides—20 or less.)
There is a similar disparity in drug deaths between white, black, and Hispanic women aged 15 to 44. In the United States, white women have a drug death rate 3 times higher than Hispanic women, and 2 times higher than black women (Figure 16). In Mississippi and South Carolina, this disparity is even greater; the rate among white women is 5.6 times and 4.9 times higher than the rate among black women, respectively. In California and Minnesota, rates of drug deaths among women aged 15 to 44 are almost equal among blacks and whites. There are also stark differences in drug deaths by age group. The rate of drug deaths is 18.1 per 100,000 among 35 to 44 year olds, 13.4 per 100,000 among 25 to 34 year olds, and 4.7 per 100,000 among 15 to 24 year olds.