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Executive SummaryIntroductionExplore the Health of Women, Children and InfantsFindingsThe Health of Women and Children between StatesThe Health of Women and Children within StatesHealthy Communities for ChildrenClinical Preventive Services for ChildrenRacial Disparities in Measures of MortalityVariations in SmokingMeasures of Women's HealthBehaviors | Measures of Women’s HealthCommunity & Environment | Measures of Women’s HealthPolicy | Measures of Women’s HealthClinical Care | Measures of Women’s HealthOutcomes | Measures of Women’s HealthMeasures of Infants' HealthBehaviors | Measures of Infants’ HealthCommunity & Environment | Measures of Infants’ HealthPolicy | Measures of Infants’ HealthClinical Care | Measures of Infants’ HealthOutcomes | Measures of Infants’ HealthMeasures of Children's HealthBehaviors | Measures of Children’s HealthCommunity & Environment | Measures of Children’s HealthPolicy | Measures of Children’s HealthClinical Care | Measures of Children’s HealthOutcomes | Measures of Children’s HealthState SummariesAlabamaAlaskaArizonaArkansasCaliforniaColoradoConnecticutDelawareFloridaGeorgiaHawaiiIdahoIllinoisIndianaIowaKansasKentuckyLouisianaMaineMarylandMassachusettsMichiganMinnesotaMississippiMissouriMontanaNebraskaNevadaNew HampshireNew JerseyNew MexicoNew YorkNorth CarolinaNorth DakotaOhioOklahomaOregonPennsylvaniaRhode IslandSouth CarolinaSouth DakotaTennesseeTexasUtahVermontVirginiaWashingtonWest VirginiaWisconsinWyomingDistrict of ColumbiaUnited StatesAppendixData Sources and Measures of Women’s HealthData Sources and Measures of Infants’ HealthData Sources and Measures of Children’s HealthMethodologyModel DevelopmentAmerica’s Health Rankings® Health of Women and Children Steering GroupThe Team

Postpartum Visit

While the majority of women attend a postpartum visit (PPV) with a health care provider, as many as 40% do not. PPVs are less common among women who are of younger age, non-Hispanic black, unmarried, have less than a high school education, and have Medicaid coverage. PPVs represent an opportunity to discuss child spacing, contraception, pregnancy complications, mental health, and infant care, as well as care for preexisting or developing medical conditions, such as diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. PPV barriers include lack of child care during appointments, conflicting work schedules, lack of health insurance, and dissatisfaction with care.

Percentage of women with a recent live birth who report receiving a postpartum checkup

Data source: Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, 2012; Maternal and Infant Health Assessment, 2012 For details:

Publicly-Funded Women’s Health Services

The typical US woman spends three years pregnant, postpartum, or trying to become pregnant, and three decades trying to avoid pregnancy. Lack of accessible family planning services is reflected in the high concentration of unintended pregnancy among low income, racial minority, and women aged 18 to 24. Publicly-funded women’s health services include contraceptive care and preventive care to avoid cases of cervical cancer, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, preterm births, and low birthweight. There were over 20 million US women of reproductive age in need of publicly-funded services and supplies in 2013. Publicly-funded family planning services resulted in a net public sector savings of $13.6 billion in 2010.

Percentage of need for contraceptive services by women with a family income 250% below the federal poverty level and women younger than age 20 met by publicly-funded providers

Data source: Guttmacher Institute, 2013 For details:

Uninsured Women

Women without health insurance often have inadequate access to care, get a lower standard of care when they are in the health system, and have poorer health outcomes such as higher rates of cancer mortality and greater risk of a late-stage cancer diagnosis. They are less likely to have a regular source of care and to use important preventive services, such as mammograms and Pap tests for cancer screening. They are more likely to forgo medical services due to cost. Barriers to insurance coverage include cost, lack of knowledge about free or reduced cost insurance, and falling into the Medicaid coverage gap.

Percentage of women aged 18 to 44 who are not covered by private or public health insurance

Data source: American Community Survey, 2014 For details:

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