America's Health Rankings, United Health Foundation Logo


Low Disparities1

  • Between females3 and males3 for child poverty
  • Between those with less than a high school education3 and some college education3 for uninsured
  • Between those with some college education3 and college graduates3 for cancer

High Disparities

  • Between those with less than a high school education2 and college graduates3 for physical inactivity
  • Between Hispanic2 and white3 for severe housing problems
  • Between American Indian/Alaska Native2 and Asian/Pacific Islander3 for smoking

[1] Low disparities within a state does not indicate that all populations are doing well. Consider rates in comparison to national averages.
[2] Rates worse than national average.
[3] Rates same or better than national average.


  • 16% decrease in Premature Death in the Black population between 2005-2009 and 2015-2019 from 8,235 to 6,955 years of potential life lost before age 75 per 100,000
  • 45% decrease in those with Less Than a High School Education in the multiracial population between 2005-2009 and 2015-2019 from 13.6% to 7.5%
  • 27% decrease in Smoking in female adults between 2011-2013 and 2017-2019 from 15.5% to 11.4%
  • 13% increase in Frequent Mental Distress in white adults between 2011-2013 and 2017-2019 from 11.1% to 12.5%
  • 15% increase in Poverty in households headed by an adult with a high school education between 2005-2009 and 2015-2019 from 13.4% to 15.4%
  • 18% increase in Physical Inactivity in adults with some college education between 2011-2013 and 2017-2019 from 20.6% to 24.3%


Income Inequality

Income inequality measures the ratio of median household income of the 20% richest to the 20% poorest. A high ratio indicates greater income inequality. Research demonstrates an association between greater income disparity and poorer population health.
In Massachusetts, income inequality has decreased since 2011. Massachusetts’ ratio is currently higher than the national ratio.

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