America's Health Rankings, United Health Foundation Logo


Low Disparities1

  • Between females2 and males3 for child poverty
  • Between those with less than a high school education3 and college graduates3 for cancer
  • Between metropolitan3 and non-metropolitan3 for low birthweight

High Disparities

  • Between Black2 and Hispanic3 for maternal mortality
  • Between those with less than a high school education2 and college graduates3 for high health status
  • Between Hispanic2 and white3 for less than a high school education

[1] Low disparities within a state does not indicate that all populations are doing well. Consider rates in comparison to national averages.
[2] Rates worse than national average.
[3] Rates same or better than national average.


  • 19% decrease in Infant Mortality in Black infants between 2003-2006 and 2015-2018 from 13.5 to 11.0 deaths (before age 1) per 1,000 live births
  • 26% decrease in Unemployment in civilians with less than a high school education between 2005-2009 and 2015-2019 from 13.3% to 9.9%
  • 25% decrease in Avoided Care Due to Cost in Hispanic adults between 2011-2013 and 2017-2019 from 27.4% to 20.7%
  • 22% increase in Maternal Mortality in Black mothers between 2005-2009 and 2015-2019 from 35.8 to 43.8 deaths per 100,000 live births
  • 39% increase in Food Insecurity in American Indian/Alaska Native households between 2003-2007 and 2015-2019 from 19.2% to 26.7%
  • 10% increase in Multiple Chronic Conditions in female adults between 2011-2013 and 2017-2019 from 11.0% to 12.1%


Income Inequality

Income inequality measures the ratio of median household income of the 20% richest to the 20% poorest. A high ratio indicates greater income inequality. Research demonstrates an association between greater income disparity and poorer population health.
Nationally, income inequality has decreased since 2011. In 2019, income inequality varied considerably across states. District of Columbia had the highest income inequality (6.3), whereas Utah had the lowest (3.7).

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